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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 319-325

Osteoporosis in children: Possible risk factors and role of antioxidants


1 Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Family and Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia
3 College of Medicine, Taibah University, Almadinah Almunawwarah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Salah A Sheweita
Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University, Abha
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jmsr.jmsr_40_19

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Osteoporosis is well recognized in children as a consequence of several factors. Therefore, the present review sheds light on the role of diabetes mellitus (DM), malabsorption, glucocorticoids, nutrition, free radicals, and oxidative stress in the induction of osteoporosis. It may also provide valuable information regarding the early detection of osteoporosis to improve not only the bone health of schoolchildren but also their general quality of life. Measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) does not capture all the risk factors of bone fractures and/or osteoporosis. Therefore, bone resorption and formation markers such as osteoprotegerin; prolidase; osteocalcin; bone alkaline phosphatase and Vitamin D; parathyroid hormones; and macroelements such as calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium should be measured beside BMD in the plasma of school-aged children. Moreover, endocrine abnormalities, high levels of free radicals, and induction of oxidative stress showed an adverse effect on the skeleton and cause osteoporosis. It has been found that there is a strong correlation between osteoporosis and DM, malnutrition, and glucocorticoids in both pediatric and adult patients. Inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, was found to increase the production of reactive oxygen species by osteoclasts. Therefore, oxidative stress and other factors are important mediators of bone loss and also osteoporosis. Furthermore, antioxidants should be provided to maintain bone integrity because a deficiency of antioxidant vitamins has been found in the osteoporotic children.


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