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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 350-356

Bone mineral density among postmenopausal Saudi women in Riyadh city – A primary care level cross-sectional survey


Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mahmoud A Mahmoud
Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh City, Riyadh Province
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jmsr.jmsr_76_19

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Objectives: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis and to identify the associated risk factors among postmenopausal Saudi women. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted included 501 menopausal women from 15 primary health-care centers randomly selected to be representative of various sectors of Riyadh City and three shopping malls located in Riyadh. A tested questionnaire was used to collect information about the related risk factor. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the calcaneus bone was measured using an ultrasound bone densitometer, and serum Vitamin D was measured using an autoanalyzer. BMD was classified into different categories, according to the World Health Organization classification. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression performed. Results: Mean + standard deviation age was 57.7 + 6.2 years with a range of 44–81. The prevalence of low BMD in the current study (osteopenia and osteoporosis) was 18% and 6%, respectively. The age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.13) and waist–hip ratio (OR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90–0.99) were significantly independent associated with osteopenia; also age (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.09–1.24) and joint pain history (OR = 6.08, 95% CI: 2.01–18.3) were significantly independent associated with osteoporosis; and age (OR 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04–1.11) and joint pain history (1.99, 1.05–3.79) were significantly independent associated with low BMD status. Conclusions: The prevalence of low BMD among postmenopausal women was found to be lower than that reported by other studies in Saudi Arabia. Age was the crucial factor associated with Low BMD status. Further community-based studies are required to assess the community prevalence of low BMD and implement strategies to reduce the burden of its related consequences.


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